It outlines the rising risks faced by coastal communities, which are being exacerbated by climate change. It shows how governments can harness innovation in information, planning, financing and monitoring to help improve resilience of those areas to climate change, and emphasises the need for close engagement with coastal communities.
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Enter an existing tag to add this content to one or more of your current collections. To start a new collection, enter a new tag below. See My collections to name and share your collection Back to search results to find more content to tag. Is capable of clearly identifying its barriers i. Is connected to external actors including family friends, religious groups, and government who deliver a wider supportive environment and supply goods and services when needed linking social capital. Has physical infrastructures and services built capital that include resilient housing, transport, and power, water, and sanitation systems.
It has the ability to retain, repair, and renovate them. Can manage its natural assets environmental capital. It recognizes their value and has the ability to protect, enhance, and maintain them.
From the above discussion it is clear that a climate resilient community has sufficient assets and resources that facilitate its coping capacity with long-term changes. Community capitals are resources of a community that are invested for the collective wellbeing of the entire community. Social scientists frequently mention human capital i. Social capital may further be divided into bonding capital i. A community is strongly resilient when all three capitals are well developed in it, while it is weakly resilient when only one or no capital is well developed in it, and furthermore, a community is moderately resilient when two capitals are well developed.
As noted in an earlier section, the IPCC [ 14 ] points out a number of climate-related drivers that affect the global environment. The drivers include warming trends, extreme temperatures, drying trends, extreme precipitation, damaging cyclones, flooding, storm surges, ocean acidification, temporal shifts in seasonality, and resulting sea-level rise SLR and salinization of water and soil.
Human communities are negatively impacted by recent global warming in numerous ways, such as negative impacts on average crop yields and increases in yield variability; urban risks associated with water supply, housing, and energy systems; decreased access to water for poor people due to water shortage and growing competition for water; displacement, and involuntary and forced migration associated with extreme events; violent conflict arising from deterioration in resource-dependent livelihoods such as agriculture and pastoralism; declining work productivity, increasing morbidity i.
Particular segments of people, including homeless people, children, construction workers, and women, are more vulnerable to increasing morbidity and mortality [ 14 ]. All of these current and projected consequences of climate change on human livelihoods have, in turn, negative impacts on overall community capitals—economic, social, physical, natural, and others. However, community capitals are neither equally distributed among community members nor are they available to a community as group—often some capitals are under the capacity of particular individuals or groups of individuals.
For example, human capital varies from individual to individual, and economic and political capitals may vary from class to class. Nevertheless, all of the capitals available to a community can mutually support and enhance each other if they are utilized optimally by the community members. Climate events can have variegated impacts on geographically-bounded communities.
They can negatively impact one form of capital but can facilitate other forms. For example, sudden changes like floods can destroy physical infrastructures in a community but they can improve natural capital and are likely to attract a financial influx through governmental, and other, rebuilding and rehabilitation schemes. On the contrary, slow onset changes, such as sea-level rise or drought, can destroy financial and environmental capital of a locality, but do not attract support from outside. As we noted earlier, a resilient community has distinct features with regard to how it utilizes its resources in addressing climate shocks.
We can term all of the above characteristics of a community as its resilience dimensions [ 53 ]. Thus, it can be concluded that although climate change phenomena can have indirect positive consequences on social, economic, and other community capitals, generally, climate variability and extremes have immediate and direct negative impacts on community resources through destabilizing or destroying them.
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Community resilience dimensions, on the other hand, have short-term and long-term direct positive influences on community resources and capitals through recovering and reinstating community strength. Community capitals serve as the working ground for both climate change impacts and resilience dimensions—either positively or negatively. Figure 2 , adapted from McCrea et al. Though this sketch does not imply a rigid flow of events or outcomes, it depicts the main argument of this paper that, in a human community, climate change dimensions have overall negative impacts on community capitals and resilience dimensions have positive impacts.
The net result of the impacts of these two dimensions on community capitals is indicative of the extent of community resilience to climate change. Climate change generates risk to human society in a multitude of intermingled ways, including long-lasting changes in mean temperatures, precipitation, and other climate parameters, as well as secondary effects, such as sea-level rise, temporal shifts in seasonality culminating into extreme and abnormal conditions at local levels, and increased climate extremes that can elicit floods, cyclones, fires and other natural disasters.
Resilience to local impacts of global climate change requires sensitivity to the local milieu since other social, cultural, economic, political, ethnic, and environmental risks and opportunities define context-specific human well-being [ 87 ]. Community-level resilience is created and re-created through constant organization, disorganization, and reorganization of resources and capitals of the community.
This article contributes to disaster and resilience studies by clearly establishing the conceptual connections between community level impacts of climate change, community capitals, and community resilience. The authors would like to thank the editor and reviewers for their thoughtful comments. Both authors contributed equally at every phase of conceptualizing, writing and constructing the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
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Published online Dec 6. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 19; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Keywords: climate change, community resilience, community capital, environment, vulnerability.
Introduction Over the last few decades, community resilience, as one of the buzzwords of the time, has gained increasing academic and programmatic attention from social researchers, planners, community activists, and development practitioners [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Climate Change: Reality of Our Time Climate change is no longer a vague and indefinite future problem, but an unavoidable event that is damaging the planet at an alarming pace, an outcome of over years of excessive greenhouse gas GHG emissions from fossil fuel combustion in energy generation, transport and industry, deforestation, and intensive agriculture [ 14 , 15 ].
Resilience: The New Frontier 3. Conceptualizing Resilience Resilience is popularly understood as the degree of elasticity in a system, its ability to rebound or bounce back after experiencing some stress or shock. Evolution of the Concept of Resilience in Academic Discourses The concept of resilience has its origin in the sciences of mathematics and physics [ 9 , 45 , 56 , 57 ], and ecology [ 58 , 59 ]. Typology of Resilience Since the concept of resilience has different connotations in different contexts, it can be categorized in multiple ways. Nature of the Threat Based on the nature of the disturbance a system or a particular aspect of a system focuses on, Folke and colleagues distinguished between specified and general resilience [ 38 ].
Nature of the System In terms of the nature of the system, resilience can be categorized in a number of ways. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Major types of resilience based on the nature of the system. Nature of the Response Based on the nature of the response that a system generates to hazards or disturbances, Handmer and Dovers [ 55 ] suggested a three-way generic classification of resilience: resistance and maintenance; change at the margins; and openness and adaptability. A resilient community: Takes intentional action to enhance the personal and collective capacity of its members and institutions to respond to, and influence the course of social and economic change.
How Community Capitals Create Resilience to Climate Change From the above discussion it is clear that a climate resilient community has sufficient assets and resources that facilitate its coping capacity with long-term changes. Figure 2. A conceptual model for climate change, community resilience and community capitals. Conclusions Climate change generates risk to human society in a multitude of intermingled ways, including long-lasting changes in mean temperatures, precipitation, and other climate parameters, as well as secondary effects, such as sea-level rise, temporal shifts in seasonality culminating into extreme and abnormal conditions at local levels, and increased climate extremes that can elicit floods, cyclones, fires and other natural disasters.
Author Contributions Both authors contributed equally at every phase of conceptualizing, writing and constructing the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Abramson D. Health Serv. Skerratt S. Enhancing the analysis of rural community resilience: Evidence from community land ownership.
Rural Stud. Working with communities-of-place: Complexities of empowerment. Local Econ. Steiner A. Unpacking community resilience through Capacity for Change.
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Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. Community Psychol. Rose A. Defining and measuring economic resilience to disasters.
Disaster Prev. Osbahr H. Adger W. Maru Y. A linked vulnerability and resilience framework for adaptation pathways in remote disadvantaged communities.
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