The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context


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The home‐region orientation of Spanish exporting firms

Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Lall, S. The new multinationals. New York: Wiley. Lecraw, D. Direct investment by firms from less developed countries. Oxford Economic Papers — Li, P. Toward an integrated theory of multinational evolution: The evidence of Chinese multinational enterprises as latecomers.

Mathews, J. Dragon multinationals. Asia Pacific Journal of Management 5— Rui, H. Foreign acquisitions by Chinese firms: A strategic intent perspective. Journal of World Business — World Investment Report New York: United Nations. Sell it yourself. Get an immediate offer. Get the item you ordered or your money back.

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Spanish Firms in a Global Context

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See all condition definitions — opens in a new window or tab Thus, for this type of firms a tension exists between the home country and international imprinting effects.

However, there is an exception, the so-called born-again global firms Bell et al. In these firms, the radical change opens a window for imprinting.. But, again, not all born-global or born-again global firms are equal. Oviatt and McDougall identify two relevant dimensions to classify these firms: on the one hand, the degree of internationalization of the value chain, and, on the other hand, the number of countries involved. Internationalization of the value chain is reduced when the activities involved are just logistics and distribution export oriented born globals.

In this case, the benefits of passive internationalization are lower. They would be high when procurement and manufacturing are also internationalized, giving rise to international startups. The other dimension is the number of countries involved: a few one region or a limited set of countries or many several regions or global scope. This dimension clearly separates regional from global players. In fact, only a small fraction of born globals are truly global players Lopez et al.

Emerging-Market Multinationals | SpringerLink

Export oriented born globals are also usually labeled as international market makers, as they arise to serve customers with unsatisfied needs so far. Depending on the scope of their expansion they would be either regional exporters or global exporters. These market makers have the inconvenient that when lacking a clear competitive advantage, imitators can reduce substantially their margins. That is why Oviatt and McDougall highlight the importance of controlling a key resource for the development of both regional and global exporters.


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In the case of international startups, these firms have an additional source of competitiveness that can be difficult to imitate: their dynamic capabilities for doing international arbitrage to match the needs of their clients. Depending on the scope of their expansion they would be either regional startups or global startups.

Due to their wider international scope and their ampler arbitrage opportunities associated to the dispersion of the value chain across many countries, the impact of imprinting can be stronger for the case of global startups. These firms are going to receive more feedback and will be enjoying more learning opportunities due to their wider exposition to different international environments.

The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context

Perhaps the best example of arbitrage and learning opportunities in a global start up is Infosys, one of the Indian pioneers in the IT outsourcing industry. The company was created to exploit the opportunity associated to international wage differentials in engineers and programmers, thus selling consulting and software development services performed in India to companies in developed countries. Being in contact with these sophisticated clients required some local support services, which forced the company to be able to coordinate the work of teams based in different locations. This capability, developed during the early years of the company, facilitated the evolution of their business model toward the so-called global delivery model.

Under this model, the company can undertake complex projects by assigning each task to the most efficient location. Hence, we expect that: Proposition 4 New multinationals that are born global or born-again global firms benefit more from early exposure to developed markets than other types of new multinationals that expand globally in a gradual way.. New multinationals that are global startups benefit more from the early exposure to developed markets than the other types of new multinationals that are also born-global firms..

Our paper provides a theoretical framework to understand and explain the performance implications of an early exposure to developed markets by new multinationals.

Taken as a whole, the propositions developed in our model show when and why the early exposure to developed markets by new multinationals increases the firm's international performance through a process of imprinting Fig. As previously mentioned, this early exposure to developed international markets entails a risk-return trade-off, and our framework shows the boundary conditions under which the benefits of this exposure outweigh its costs: a learning orientation, during critical stages of the lifecycle e. The essence of our model is that an early exposure to developed markets pays off when it is oriented to gain access to new knowledge and capabilities with the aim of transferring them to the entire organization and limiting the amount of the exposure in terms of financial commitment and economic risk..

The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context
The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context
The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context
The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context
The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context The new multinationals : Spanish firms in a global context

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