New York, Harper decisions; ages, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Routledge, Taylor elections; Francis Group, Leuven University Press, Judith Becker; concerned with the Ride of the Maurice J. University Press of Hawaii, Duke University Press, Sir Kenelm Digby and His Venetia. Government Printing Office, Houghton Mifflin Company, Naval School Naval Justice , A qualitative methodology is used involving a series of interviews with eight participants who were considered to be experienced in cross-cultural communication with a background in education. From the interviews a series of narratives were written which revealed their experiences and understandings particularly about their border crossings, culture brokerage and opinions regarding teaching indigenous students and teaching them science.
These narratives became the major source of data for analysis. This research shows that many westerners who are successful working in cross-cultural settings value the culture of their indigenous hosts. This is the consequence of enhanced identity learning and can be the result of culture shock. Not all westerners learn to value the other culture and may either leave the community or stay for some other reason.
Culture brokerage is a strategy that individuals choose to use, sometimes on the behalf of a government or institution. The characteristics of an effective culture broker are those of a border crosser and this establishes a nexus between border crossing and culture brokerage. Suggestions regarding preparation to teach in indigenous communities reflect the enhancement of identity learning and promotion of border crossing. Preservice training should include experience practicum teaching with indigenous students.
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Effective teaching of indigenous students could be supported by hiring experienced teachers and extending their stays. All teachers who go to work in indigenous communities need to be aware of culture shock and its possible impact and mechanisms for minimising its impact need to be established through mentoring programs.
The context of the students needs to be taken into account by consideration of their culture and appropriate interpretation of the curriculum and implementation of teaching strategies. Internationalization of Higher Education. According to Figure 1, the context of higher education is important when reviewing cultural competence and ethical decision making within a broader framework.
Two aspects of higher education are addressed in this section: the internationalization of the curriculum and the integrated training of cultural competence and ethical skills. Internationalization of higher education is viewed to be a response to globalization. It has gained momentum and cultural competence is viewed as one of the outcomes of internationalization, Cf. It has become a powerful and persistent driver in education around the world during the past two decades, Cf. Reference to internationalization can be found in e. The concept has been debated extensively and different terms and definitions have been used to describe this phenomenon in higher education over the past 50 plus years.
According to Knight. There are a plethora of definitions and descriptions which reflect debates and different perspectives on the topic, but all add in different manners to the application of the concept to higher education. Knight, Cf. Hudzik, cf. It shares institutional ethos and values and touches the entire higher education. It shapes institutional ethos and values and touches the entire higher education enterprise.
- The Bassoon?
- Working across cultures in indigenous science education?
- Book Working Cross Culturally: Identity Learning, Border Crossing And Culture Brokering .
- Seabed fluid flow: the impact on geology, biology and the marine environment;
Various authors have identified key aspects of the internationalization of higher education, which include e. Political and economic rationales for national policies on internationalization appear to be increasing at the cost of academic and cultural motivations, which could be detrimental to the process, Cf. In spite of internationalization being debated around the world and being implemented in different ways, it is viewed as a positive response to globalization as international connections are enriching and offer a fresh cultural insights, Cf.
Cultural competence is central to internationalization in higher education since it is one of the desired outcomes. Internationalization of the Curriculum IoC. A new focus has emerged within the broader institutional approach to internationalization, namely the internationalization of the curriculum IoC which emphasizes the implementation of internationalization for teaching and learning.
Different approaches have been described to the IoC e.
Working Cross-Culturally: Identity Learning, Border Crossing and Culture Brokering
However, according to B. Leask, Cf. IoC requires that academics think outside of these traditional restrictive, boundaries and recognize that disciplinary knowledge is not culture-free, Cf. IoC is based on an understanding of the cultural foundations of knowledge and practice within disciplines and related professions which frequently requires members to challenge commonly held beliefs. Encouragement of and support for students to engage productively with difference, including different ways of thinking, both within and beyond the classroom.
It situates the disciplinary teams who construct the curriculum as the center of the process. The framework contains layers of context namely institutional, local, national, and g global. The interaction of these layers determines how internationalization is conceptualized and enacted in the curriculum.
The framework includes curriculum design.
The foundation of knowledge remains within the context of the discipline, but the complexity of the problems must be understood from a broader perspective that acknowledges cultural, social, and linguistic diversity, as well as an international viewpoint of the field of study, Cf. Internationalization of curricula for health care professionals aims to facilitate the acquisition of broader international perspectives through an awareness of culture and intercultural communication skills. Topics such as equity, access to healthcare, public health and the burden of disease address a global perspective.
Development of cultural competence, as mentioned earlier, is a key outcome, and together with professional skills, will allow graduates to be empowered to serve communities in the best way possible, Cf. Two frameworks for internationalization were proposed by J. She identifies categories of each, provides descriptions of activities and stipulates forms or conditions of mobility for these frameworks. It is clear that cultural competence plays a central role within both of these frameworks. On a personal level, students would be required to evidence cultural competence to e.
Cultural competence could be facilitated by students participating in extracurricular activities e. Faculty would require cultural competence to e.
Williams, B. Louw, M. Keske-Soares, K. Bleile, I. Trindade, T. Kessler, L. Maximino, and A. Fukushiro, Cf. They adopted the concept of scientific multiculturalism as the core of their international curriculum. Scientific multiculturalism refers to the differences in research cultures across countries with regard to student training models, interactions between faculty and students, and interactions among students, Cf.
In addition to research cultures, research can be a mechanism for students to not only gain knowledge of the professions, but also to develop cross-cultural competence. As part of a multi-institutional collaboration jointly funded by the U. Through a research-based study abroad program, the students learned social and cultural differences that exist in working with families from a bioecological model of child development; Cf.
This research-focused approach to study abroad showed students that science in their field is not the exclusive domain of researchers in the U. It fosters change from an ethnocentric perspective on scientific discovery to a broader perspective, or cultural relativism. Internationalization and Ethical Decision Making. Implementing internationalization in higher education poses ethical challenges to administration and educators alike.
According to L. Rumbley, P. Altbach and L. Reisberg, Cf. Institutions with more resources have the advantage with more opportunities to internationalize which leads to inequity in terms of the quality and quantity of internationalization activities. A call for ethical implementation of internationalization to be guided by core principles of ethical engagement is made, Cf. Internationalization requires a commitment to fundamental values such as transparency, quality of programs and support services, academic freedom, fair treatment of partners and stakeholders and respect for local cultures.
They recommend that principles should exist to guide ethical decision making in internationalization with a long term perspective firmly rooted in ethics and quality, Cf.
Heyl and J. Tullbane, Cf. Educational leaders are faced with the complexity of interactions with global partners, different legal systems, and cultures when required to make critical decisions regarding internationalization. It is their responsibility to identify risks for new partnerships and endeavors and to make transparent, ethically based decisions in the best interest of all stakeholders. Given the centrality of cultural competence in higher education, practical ethical decision making is challenging and wide ranging.
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